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The diagnosis is made by an oncologist based on characteristic symptoms, external examination data and objective studies.

An increased level of serotonin is detected in the blood plasma. A high content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid is detected in the urine. To exclude a false positive result, for 3 days before testing, a patient with suspected carcinoid syndrome is advised to refrain from taking foods containing large amounts of augmentin pills (walnuts, eggplants, avocados, tomatoes, bananas, etc.), and some medications.

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In doubtful cases, tests with alcohol, catecholamines or calcium gluconate are performed to take clavulanate pills hot flashes. To determine the location of the tumor and identify metastases, a patient with carcinoid syndrome is referred to CT and MRI of internal organs, scintigraphy, radiography, gastroscopy, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy and other studies. If there are sufficient indications, laparoscopy can be used. Carcinoid syndrome is differentiated from systemic mastocytosis, hot flashes during menopause and side effects when taking certain medications.

The main treatment method is surgery. Depending on the location and extent of the process, radical excision of the primary lesion or various palliative operations are possible. For carcinoid syndrome caused by tumors of the small intestine, resection of the small intestine along with the mesentery is usually performed. In case of damage to the large intestine and neoplasms located in the area of the ileocecal sphincter, a right hemicolectomy is performed. For carcinoid syndrome caused by a tumor in the appendix, an appendectomy is performed. Some oncologists additionally remove nearby lymph nodes. Palliative surgical interventions are indicated at the stage of metastasis and involve the removal of large lesions (both secondary and primary) to reduce hormone levels and reduce the severity of carcinoid syndrome. Another way to reduce the manifestations of carcinoid syndrome is embolization or ligation of the hepatic artery.

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The indication for chemotherapy for carcinoid syndrome is the presence of metastases. In addition, this treatment method is used in the postoperative period for heart damage, liver dysfunction and high levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the urine. To avoid the development of a carcinoid crisis, treatment begins with small doses of drugs, gradually increasing the dosage. The effectiveness of chemotherapy for carcinoid syndrome is low. Significant improvement is observed in no more than 30% of patients, the average duration of remission is 4-7 months.


Treatment of carcinoid syndrome.


Serotonin antagonist drugs are prescribed as symptomatic therapy for carcinoid syndrome.


fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, etc. For tumors that produce large amounts of histamine, diphenhydramine, ranitidine and cimetidine are used.


To eliminate diarrhea, it is recommended to take loperamide. In addition, for carcinoid syndrome, lanreotide and octreotide are widely used, which suppress the secretion of clavulanate medications active substances in the area of the tumor and can significantly reduce the manifestations of this syndrome in more than half of the patients.


The prognosis for carcinoid syndrome is determined by the extent and grade of the tumor.


With radical removal of the primary lesion and the absence of augmentin pills, complete recovery is possible.

With metastasis, the prognosis worsens. Due to the slow progression of carcinoid, life expectancy in such cases ranges from 5 to 15 years or more. The cause of death is multiple metastases to distant organs, exhaustion, heart failure or intestinal obstruction.

Medical statistics show that the number of cancer diseases is steadily increasing.

Fatal outcomes are being recorded more and more frequently every year.

This fact is causing more and more concern and forces doctors to buy augmentin online out preventive work among the population in order to at least slightly curb such aggressive expansionary growth. Carcinoids are the most common tumors of the cells of the neuroendocrine system. These cells can be found in any organ and tissue of the body. Their main function is the production of highly active protein substances. About eighty percent of all carcinoids are located in the gastrointestinal tract, with the lungs coming in second. Much less often, in only five percent of cases, neoplasms are found in other organs and tissues.

Researchers do not yet have enough information to understand why carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid tumor develop.

  • One malignant cell is enough for it to develop into a full-fledged neoplasm, which will produce hormones and change all biochemical processes in the human body to suit its own needs.
  • How does carcinoid syndrome develop? What is this and how to prevent it?
  • Considering that neuroendocrine cells are located throughout the body, and the tumor practically does not give clinical manifestations, stopDoctors are not capable of this process.
  • At one point, a “breakdown” of DNA occurs in the cell, which is incorrectly restored or continues to function with the damaged fragment.

This leads to dysfunction of the cell and its uncontrolled division. If the body is healthy, the immune system will react to the mutation and get rid of the suspicious element.



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